Optimization of Non-uniform Planar Antenna Array Topology in Two-dimensional DOA Estimation


  • X. Luong Tran Department of Radar Basics, Air Defence – Air Force Academy, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • T. Ha Nguyen Department of Radar Basics, Air Defence, Air Force Academy, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • J. Vesely University of Defence in Brno, Czech Republic
  • F. Dvorak University of Defence in Brno, Czech Republic
  • V. Minh Duong Department of Radar, Naval Academy, Nhatrang, Vietnam
  • V. Sang Doan Department of Radar, Naval Academy, Nhatrang, Vietnam




The paper deals with the optimization of the sparse planar antenna array for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation in two dimensions (azimuth and elevation). The optimization algorithm was proposed on the basis of the peak sidelobe level (SLL) and half-power beamwidth (HPBW) parameters. In empirical validation, we have set up a measurement system to test the efficiency of an optimized array configuration. The array was configured using the patch antennas with frequency band 2.4 GHz. In comparison with several popular array configurations, the experimental results show that the proposed antenna array was optimized, and it provided higher accuracy and resolution in two-dimensional (2D) DOA estimation.


CHANDRAN, S. Advances in Direction-of-Arrival Estimation. Boston: Artech House, 2005. 496 p. ISBN 978-1-59-693004-9.

HARRY, L. van T. Optimum Array Processing: Part IV of Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory. New York: Wiley, 2002. 1433 p. ISBN 978-0-47-109390-9.

KRIM, H. and VIBERG, M. Two Decades of Array Signal Processing Research: the Parametric Approach. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 1996, vol. 13, no. 4, p. 67-94. https://doi.org/10.1109/79.526899.

BALANIS, C.A. Antenna Theory Analysis and Design. 4th ed. New York: Wiley, 2016. 1104 p. ISBN 978-1-118-64206-1.

HEIDENREICH, P., ZOUBIR, A.M. and RUBSAMEN, M. Joint 2-D DOA Estimation and Phase Calibration for Uniform Rectangular Arrays. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2012, vol. 60, no. 9, p. 4683-4693. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSP.2012.2203125.

GU, F., ZHU, W.P. and SWAMY, M.N.S. Joint 2-D DOA Estimation Viasparse L-Shaped Array. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2015, vol. 63, no. 5, p. 1171-1182. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSP.2015.2389762.

CHEN, H., HOU, C., WANG, Q., HUANG, L., YAN, W. and PU, L. Improved Azimuth/Elevation Angle Estimation Algorithm for Three-Parallel Uniform Linear Arrays. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2015, vol. 14, p. 329-332. https://doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2014.2360419.

TAYEM, N. and KWON, H. L-Shape 2-Dimensional Arrival Angle Estimation with Propagator Method. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2005, vol. 53, no. 5, p. 1622-1630. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2005.846804.

VIBERG, M. and ENGDAHL, C. Element Position Considerations for Robust Direction Finding Using Sparse Arrays. In Proceedings of the Thirty-Third Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers. Pacific Grove: IEEE, 1999, p. 835-839. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACSSC.1999.831827.

LANGE, O. and YANG, B. Antenna Geometry Optimization for 2D Direction-Of-Arrival Estimation for Radar Imaging. In Proceedings of the International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas. Aachen: IEEE, 2011, p. 6-13. https://doi.org/10.1109/WSA.2011.5741909.

COHEN, R. and ELDAR, Y.C. Sparse Convolutional Beamforming for Ultrasound Imaging. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 2018, vol. 65, no. 12, p. 2390-2406. https://doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2018.2874256.

ATHLEY, F. Optimization of Element Positions for Direction Finding with Sparse Arrays. In Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Signal Processing Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing. Singapore: IEEE, 2001, p. 516-519. https://doi.org/10.1109/SSP.2001.955336.

WANG, X., ABOUTANIOS, E. and AMIN, M.G. Adaptive Array Thinning for Enhanced DOA Estimation. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 2015, vol. 22, no. 7, p. 799-803. https://doi.org/10.1109/LSP.2014.2370632.

TRAN, X.L., VESELY, J., HUBACEK, P. and DUONG, V.M. Optimization of Nonuniform Linear Array Configuration for Reduced Number of Elements. In Proceedings of the 19th International Radar Symposium. Bonn: IEEE, 2018, p. 1057-1066. https://doi.org/10.23919/IRS.2018.8448063.

Find Minimum of Function Using Genetic Algorithm [online]. [viewed 2020-01-15]. Available from: https://www.mathworks.com/help/gads/ga.html

TRAN, X.L., VESELY, J. and DVORAK, F. Optimization of Nonuniform Linear Antenna Array Topology. Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 2018, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 341-349. https://doi.org/10.15598/aeee.v16i3.2841.

Fast 2D Peak Finder [online]. October 2013. [viewed 2020-01-09]. Available from: https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/37388-fast-2dpeak-finder




How to Cite

Tran, X. L., Nguyen, T. H., Vesely, J., Dvorak, F., Duong, V. M., & Doan, V. S. (2020). Optimization of Non-uniform Planar Antenna Array Topology in Two-dimensional DOA Estimation. Advances in Military Technology, 15(2), 393–403. https://doi.org/10.3849/aimt.01389



Research Paper